GLOSSARY:

1. National Healthcare Safety Network
2. Infection Preventionist(s)
3. multidrug-resistant organism
4. Adverse Drug Event(s)
5. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
6. healthcare-associated infection
7. clostridium difficile
8. Antimicrobial Stewardship Program
9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
10. Infection Preventionist
11. electronic medication administration record
12. electronic medical record
13. electronic health record

REFERENCES: Please note cited results may vary by facility.

1. Sarvareddi P, Fry-Arrighy B, Ciolko T, et al. Does an automated infection surveillance system benefit a hospital with limited information system resources? Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) Annual Conference, New Orleans, 2010.

2. Song X, Mackie K, Pass P, et al. Benefits of using TheraDoc® to assist in surveillance for central line associated nosocomial bloodstream infections (CA-BSIs). Abstract 229. 2006 SHEA Annual Meeting. March 18-21, Chicago, Ill.

3. Hellinger W, Alvarez S, Brumble L, Keating M, et al. Optimizing antibiotic therapy with computerized integration of hospital information systems and an antibiotic management team (AMT). Poster session presented at: 42nd Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; 2004 Sep 30-Oct 3; Boston, MA.

4. McSorley, Lori (Infection Control, Warren Hospital, Phillipsburg, NJ). Email to: Barbara Sullivan (Sullivan & Associates, Huntington Beach, CA). 2011 Feb 7. Based on pilot results from Warren Hospital, Phillipsburg, NJ.

5. Martin JK Jr, Broekemeier RL. Implementation of intelligent interface software to enhance pharmacist clinical interventions in a healthcare system. Poster session presented at: 40th Midyear Clinical Meeting of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists; 2005 Dec 4-8; Las Vegas, NV.

6. Testimonial gathered during course of internal satisfaction survey of 76 current Infection Control Assistant customers, performed 1/30/12 through 2/13/12.

7. Calloway S, Akilo HA, Bierman K. Impact of a clinical decision support system on pharmacy clinical interventions, documentation efforts, and costs. Hosp Pharm. 2013;48(9):744-752.

8. Samore M, Bateman K, Alder S, et al. Clinical Decision Support and Appropriateness of Antimicrobial Prescribing: A Randomized Trial. JAMA. 2005;294(18):2305-14.

9. Best in KLAS Awards: Clinical Decision Support – Surveillance. Orem (UT): KLAS (US); 2015.

10. Nance, Debbie (Director of Infection Contol, Baptist Memorial Healthcare, Memphis, TN). Email to Aaron Stronberg (Hospira, Lake Forest, IL). 2012 May 24. Testimonial provided during phone interview, release for publication 2012 June 28.

11. Healthcare-Associated Infections. October 2011. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/hais.htm. Accessed February 1, 2012.

12. Pass M, Song X, Mackie K, et al. Enhanced Isolation Practices To Improve Patient Safety: Preventing Nosocomial Transmission in a Hospital. Am J Infect Control. 2006 June;34(5):E105-E106.

13. Testimonial gathered during course of internal satisfaction survey of 76 current Infection Control Assistant customers, performed 1/30/12 through 2/13/12.

14. Pittet D, Tarara D, Wenzel RP. Nosocomial bloodstream infection in critically ill patients. Excess length of stay, extra costs, and attributable mortality. JAMA. 1994;271:1598-1601.

15. Tampa General Hospital’s Infection Prevention & Pharmacy Departments Work Together to Implement TheraDoc™ Clinical Surveillance Technology. Lake Forest (IL): Hospira, Inc. Available from:.http://www.theradoc.com Accessed November 21, 2011

16. Hospira Unveils TheraDoc Anticoagulation Assistant(TM) Knowledge Module to Help Hospitals Comply With Joint Commission [Internet]. Lake Forest (IL): 2010 May. Hospira, Inc. Press Release: Available from: http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=175550&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1423581&highlight=. Accessed August 15, 2012.

17. HIMSS: ASQ stories of success [Internet]. Chicago: Health Information and Management Systems Society; c 2010. Clinical decision support helps Memorial Healthcare system achieve 97 percent compliance with pediatric asthma core quality measures; 2010 [cited 2011 May 3]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: http://apps.himss.org/storiesofsuccess/docs/tier2/MemorialHealthSystemStoriesSuccess.pdf Accessed August 9, 2015.

18. Report Brief: Preventing Medication Errors, Institute of Medicine, 2006: 7. Available from: http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2006/Preventing-Medication-Errors-Quality-Chasm-Series.aspx Accessed August 31, 2012.

19. TheraDoc™ Clinical Surveillance: Enhancement of Antimicrobial Stewardship with TheraDoc Clinical Decision Support Software. Lake Forest (IL): Hospira, Inc. Available from:.http://www.theradoc.com Jason Pogue PharmD, BCPS-ID, Clinical Pharmacist Specialist, Infectious Diseases — Sinai-Grace Hospital & Keith S. Kay MD, MPH, Professor of Medicine, Corporate Medical Director, Hospital Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship — Detroit Medical Center.

20. HIMSS Honors Memorial Healthcare System for Using TheraDoc Decision Support Technology. Lake Forest, IL: 2010 March. Hospira, Inc. Press Release: available from http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=175550&p=irol-newsArticle_Print&ID=1397056&highlight=.. Accessed Aug. 6, 2012.

21. PRESS RELEASE: Hospira Reinforces Importance of Clinical Surveillance Technology in Line With World Health Day Focus on Antimicrobial Resistance. LAKE FOREST, Ill., April 7, 2011 /PRNewswire via COMTEX. Available at http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/hospira-reinforces-importance-of-clinical-surveillance-technology-in-line-with-world-health-day-focus-on-antimicrobial-resistance-119409889.html Accessed: April 1, 2015.

22. “Best in KLAS Awards 2012: Software and Services Report,” December 2012. © 2012 KLAS Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. www.KLASresearch.com Accessed January 8, 2013.

23. Amini, Rosie (Antimicrobial Stewardship-Critical Care Precepter, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA). Email to Aaron Stronberg (Hospira, Lake Forest, IL). 2013 February 12. Testimonial provided during phone interview, release for publication 2013 April 19.

24. Noskin G, Zoph T. Information Technology Supporting Infectious Diseases: Northwestern Memorial Hospital. Presented at: Scottsdale Institute Teleconference; April 28, 2005; Scottsdale, AZ.

25. Represents combined bed numbers for Northwestern Memorial Healthcare. Available from http://www.nmh.org/nm/about-us-northwestern-memorial-healthcare, Accessed August 7, 2012.

26. Represents combined bed numbers for Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Children’s Center. Available from http://health.usnews.com/best-hospitals/area/md/johns-hopkins-hospital-6320180 and for Johns Hopkins Hospital available from http://www.hopkinschildrens.org/new-hospital.aspx for Johns Hopkins Children’s Center, Accessed August 7, 2012.

27. Represents combined bed numbers from Franciscan St. Joseph, St. Clare, St. Francis and St. Anthony. Available from http://www.fhshealth.org/About-us/Franciscan-Facts-and-Figures/, Accessed August 7, 2012.

28. Represents beds for St. Luke’s Warren Hospital. Available from http://www.warrenhospital.org/warren-hospital-news-article.html?n=28 Accessed August 8, 2012.

29. Echavarria K, Smith G, Tierney C, et al. Utility of an Electronic Clinical Surveillance System to Facilitate Tracking of MDRO and Antimicrobial Stewardship in a VA Medical Center, ElectronicHealthcare, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2011, 35p.

30. Represents beds for South Texas Veterans Health Care System. Available from http://www2.va.gov/directory/guide/facility.asp?id=115Accessed August 7, 2012.

31. Revision to the report A PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN TO COMBAT ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE, PART 1: DOMESTIC ISSUES, Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance, Co-chairs: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health, 2011: 8. http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/actionplan/actionPlan.html. Accessed November 22, 2011.

32. Roberts, RR, Hota B, Ahmad I, Scott RD II, Foster SD, Abbasi F, Schabowski S, Kampe LM, Ciavarella GG, Supino M, Naples J, Cordell R, Levy SB, Weinstein, RA. Hospital and societal costs of antimicrobial-resistant infections in a Chicago teaching hospital: implications for antibiotic stewardship. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2009; 49:1175- 84.

33. Joe DiMaggio Children’s Hospital Hosts 20th Birthday Celebration [Internet]. Hollywood (FL): 2012 September. Joe DiMaggio Children’s Hospital Press Release: Available from: http://news.mhs.net/press-release/joe-dimaggio-childrens-hospital/joe-dimaggio-childrens-hospital-hosts-20th-birthday-ce. Accessed September 25, 2012.

34. Parrillo S. Presentation Number 030: The Burden of National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Reporting on the Infection Preventionist: A Community Hospital Perspective. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) Annual Conference, Nashville, 2015.

35. National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (March 2015) Available at: https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/national_action_plan_for_combating_antibotic-resistant_bacteria.pdf. Accessed: June 2, 2015.

36. Desai G, Nance D, Moore L. Empowering clinicians, containing costs through decision support software. Nursing Management. 2013;44(11):4-6. Available at: http://journals.lww.com/nursingmanagement/Fulltext/2013/11001/Empowering_clinicians,_containing_costs_through.2.aspx Accessed: June 11, 2015.

38. Pogue JM, Mynatt RP, Marchaim D, et al. Automated alerts coupled with antimicrobial stewardship intervention lead to decreases in length of stay in patients with gram-negative bacteremia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014;35(2):132-138.

39 Udeani G, Evans J, Payne A, Shanks JD. Clinical and Economic Impact of a Data Mining Computer Application at CHRISTUS Spohn; CHRISTUS Spohn Health System; Corpus Christi, Texas. Poster session presented at: Texas Society of Health-system Pharmacists 2014 Annual Seminar; 2014 Apr 11-13; Houston, TX.

40 Sullivan L, Fraser M, Dembry LM, et.al. Impact of Electronic Surveillance on Hospital Epidemiology Surveillance Workflow at a Large Tertiary Care Academic Medical Center; Yale-New Haven Hospital; New Haven, Connecticut. Poster session presented at: Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology 2013 Annual Conference; 2013 Jun 8-10; Ft. Lauderdale, FL.

41 Laux, Jeff (Clinical Pharmacist, Covenant Healthcare, Saginaw, MI). Released for publication to Aaron Stronberg (Hospira, Lake Forest, IL). 2013 August 19.

42 Brandt, Michael (Pharmacy Clinical Supervisor, Kootenai Health, Coeur d’Alene, ID). Email to Aaron Stronberg (Hospira, Lake Forest, IL). 2013 August 21. Testimonial provided during phone interview, release for publication 2013 August 22.

43 Herbert, Cheryl (Executive Director, Good Shepherd Health System, Longview, TX). Email to Aaron Stronberg (Hospira, Lake Forest, IL). 2013 September 23. Testimonial provided during phone interview, release for publication 2013 October 8.

44 Shaw, Yvonne (Infection Prevention Program Lead, Covenant Healthcare, Saginaw, MI). Released for publication to Aaron Stronberg (Hospira, Lake Forest, IL). 2013 October 11.

45 “Best in KLAS Awards 2013: Software and Services Report,” January 2014. © 2014 KLAS Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. www.KLASresearch.com.

46 Kullar R, Goff DA, Schulz LT, Fox BC, Rose WE. The “epic” challenge of optimizing antimicrobial stewardship: the role of electronic medical records and technology. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57(7):1005-1013.

47 Roshanov PS, Fernandes N, Wilczynski JM, et al. Features of effective computerized clinical decision support systems: meta regression of 162 randomized trials. BMJ 2013;346:f657. Available at: http://www.bmj.com/content/346/bmj.f657?sid=dcb27108-f1d7-477a-948d-78769fdcb34b Accessed: April 21, 2015.

48 Based on active alerting coupled with antimicrobial stewardship interventions on patients with gram-negative bacteremia who were not on appropriate empiric therapy at time of positive culture alert.

49 Calloway S, Akilo H, Bierman K, et al. Use of a Clinical Surveillance System to Improve Clinical Intervention Documentation in a 425-bed acute-care Community Hospital; Good Shepherd Medical Center; March 2012; Longview TX. Poster session presented at: Texas Society of Health-System Pharmacists; 2012 Apr 13-14; Dallas, TX.

50 ”Gap exists between vision for EMRs to improve care coordination and clinicians’ experiences.” Dec. 29, 2009. Center for Studying Health System Change, The Commonwealth Fund. Available at: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/News/News-Releases/2009/Dec/Gap-Exists-Between-Vision-for-Electronic-Medical-Records.aspx. Accessed April 21, 2015.

51 Nicks B, Manthey D, Fitch M. Academic Emergency Medicine 2009: Brief Report – The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Community-Acquired Pneumonia Core Measures Lead to Unnecessary Antibiotic Administration by Emergency Physicians. Available at:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00320.x/pdf. Accessed: May 31, 2015.

52 Classen D, Bates D. Sounding Board – Finding the Meaning in Meaningful Use. N Engl J Med 2011. Available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsb1103659. Accessed: April 21, 2015.

53 Magill SS, Edwards JR, Bamberg W, et al. Multistate Point-Prevalence Survey of Health Care–Associated Infections. N Engl J Med 2014;370:1198-208. Available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa1306801 Accessed: April 22, 2015.

54. National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. National and state healthcare associated infections; progress report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Jan. 2015. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/HAI/pdfs/progress-report/hai-progress-report.pdf Accessed on: April 7, 2015.

55. Weinstein RA. Nosocomial Infection Update. Emerg Infect Dis Vol.4, No.3, July-September 1998. Available at: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/4/3/98-0320 Accessed: April 7, 2015.

56. Kaye D. 1 October News: Copper Kills 97 Percent of Hospital Bacteria. Clinical Infectious Diseases. Volume 53, Issue 7;Pp.i-ii. Available at: http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/53/7/i.full. Accessed: April 7, 2015.

57. McCaughey B. Unnecessary Deaths: The Human and Financial Costs of Hospital Infections, 3rd edition. Committee to Reduce Infection Deaths. Available at: http://www.hospitalinfection.org/ridbooklet.pdf Accessed: April 8, 2015.

58. Scott RD. The direct medical costs of healthcare-associated infections in U.S. hospitals and the benefits of prevention, 2009. Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009. Available at:
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59. Federal HAI Reporting to NHSN. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology. Available at: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CB8QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fapic.org%2FResource_%2FTinyMceFileManager%2FAdvocacy-PDFs%2FFederal_HAI_Reporting_to_NHSN_1_8_14.ppt&ei=LtNrVb2EBsvAsAXa4oO4Ag&usg=AFQjCNEf1SGEcsaOBXZrQtcA_Wp7yLwZ6A&bvm=bv.94455598,d.b2w Accessed: May31, 2015.

60. Pollack D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NHSN: Changing Purposes. Using NHSN to Accurately Report HAIs March 12, 2014. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nhsn/PDFs/training/training-ChangingPurposes.pdf. Accessed: May 31, 2015.

61. Blumenthal D. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology Comments on Meaningful Use Stage 2. Available at: http://www.apic.org/resource_/tinymcefilemanager/advocacy-pdfs/comments-on-meaningful-use-stage-2.pdf. Accessed: May 31, 2015.

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64. Bates DW, Spell N, Cullen DJ, et al. The Costs of Adverse Drug Events in Hospitalized Patients. JAMA. 1997;277(4):307-311. doi:10.1001/jama.1997.03540280045032.

65. Geller AI, Shehab N, Lovegrove MC, et al. National Estimates of Insulin-Related Hypoglycemia and Errors Leading to Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(5):678-686. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.136.

66. Piazza G, Nguyen TN, Cios D, et al. Anticoagulation-associated adverse drug events. The American journal of medicine. 2011;124(12):1136-1142. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.06.009.

67. Gurwitz JH, Field TS, Harrold LR, et al. Incidence and Preventability of Adverse Drug Events Among Older Persons in the Ambulatory Setting. JAMA. 2003;289(9):1107-1116. doi:10.1001/jama.289.9.1107.

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70. Among 49 survey respondents, (38 pharmacists) conducted online 8/29/13-9/13/13. Individual data reported does not include those respondents who indicated no preference to either system, preference to a different system than EMR or TheraDoc, or who indicated utilizing no system.

71. Blanchard K, Jefferson J, Mermel L. Case finding using infection control software. The 34th Annual Meeting of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology. Vol 35. San Jose, CA: Am J Infect Control; 2007:e198–199 Accessed: July 1, 2015. Available at: http://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553%2807%2900400-2/pdf.

72 Carver, Robin (Manager, Strategic Clinical Initiatives – ITS Safety Solutions, Premier, Charlotte, NC). Email to Suzanne Rodriguez (Premier, Charlotte, NC). 2015 July 30. Testimonial provided during phone interview, release for publication 2015 August 3.

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78. Boucher HW, Corey GR. Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis. 2008; 46(Suppl 5):S344–9.

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